Effect of Bullying on the Risk of Anxiety and Social Interaction Disorder among Senior High School in Yogyakarta


  • Hainas Sani Privetera Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • RB Soemanto Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Hanung Prasetya Study Program of Acupuncture, Health Polytechnics Ministry of Health Surakarta


Background: Bullying is a widespread pheno­menon among young people and is used to describe interpersonal relationships charac­te­rized by an imbalance of power. The Indone­sian Child Protection Commission noted that there were 161 cases of bullying in 2018. Ado­lescents who are involved in bullying expe­ri­ence risks such as psychiatric symptoms, alco­hol and drug abuse and even suicide. This study aims to analyze the effects of bullying on self-concept and social disorders in high school students in Sleman Yogyakarta.

Subjects and Method: This study used a cross sectional study design. This study was conducted in Sleman Regency in August 2019. The sample was taken by using stratified ran­dom sampling with a total of 200 senior high school students. The independent variables include parental education, social environment, anxiety level, self-concept, and social interac­tion disorders. The dependent variable was bullying behavior. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using multilevel multiple logistic regression with stata 13.

Results: Low family education (b= 3.11; 95% CI= 0.83 to 3.67; p= 0.002), social environ­ment in the city (b=3.15; 95% CI= 0.71 to 3.09; p= 0.002), have social media (b=4.13; 95% CI= 1.46 to 3.83; p= 0.000), have a level of anxiety (b= 2.92; 95% CI= 0.62 to 3.17; p= 0.005), negative self-concept (b=2.83; 95% CI= 0.62 to 3.40; p= 0.005), social interaction disorder (b= 3.23; 95% CI= 0.87 to 3.55; p= 0.001) increased the likelihood of experiencing bullying in adolescents. Variations at the school level indicated that there was a contextual influence on bullying behavior (ICC= 13.18%).

Conclusion: There is a statistically significant influence of parental education, social environ­ment, social media, anxiety levels, self-concept, and social interaction disorders on bullying behavior in adolescents. Variations at the level of school show that there is a contextual influ­ence on bullying behavior in adolescents.

Keywords: bullying, adolescents, multi­level analysis

Correspondence: Hainas Sani Privetera. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: sariprivitera@gmail.com. Mobile: +628­2328848001.

Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior (2020), 05(04): 306-316



Albuhairan F, Abbas OA, Sayyed DE, Badri M, Alshahri S, Vries ND (2017). The relationship of bullying and physical violence to mental health and aca-demic performance: A cross-sectional study among adolescents in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med. 4(2): 61-65. http://dx.doi.org/-10.1016/j.ijpam.2016.12.005.

Almahasnih AFS (2019). The phenomenon of bullying: A case study of Jordanian Schools at Tafila. World Journal of Education. 9(1). https://doi.org/10.-5430/wje.v9n1p243.

Brito CC, Oliveira MT (2013). Bullying and self-esteem in adolescents from public schools. J Pediatr (Rio J). 89(6): 601-607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.-2013.04.001.

Craig W, Boniel-Nissim M, King N, Walsh SD, Boer M, Donnelly PD, Harel-Fisch Y, et al. (2020). Social media use and cyber-bullying: A cross-national ana-lysis of young people in 42 countries. 66(6): S100-S108. J Adolesc Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.03.006.

Erick M, Kristi K, Juan C (2014). School bullying, cyberbullying, or both: correlates of teen suicidality in the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Sur-vey. Compr Psychiatry. 55(5): 1063-8 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.02.005.

Festl R, Quandt T (2013). Social relations and cyberbullying: The influence of individual and structural attributes on victimization and perpetration via the internet. Human Communication Re-search. 39(1): 101–126. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.2012.01442.x.

Garett R, Lord LR, Young SD (2016). Asso-ciations between social media and cyberbullying: A review of the litera-ture. MHealth. 2(46). http://dx.doi.-org/10.21037/mhealth.2016.12.01.

Liu J, Graves N (2011). Childhood bullying: A review of constructs, contexts, and nursing implications. Public Health Nurs. 6(3): 379–390. https://doi.org-/10.1111/j.1525-1446.2011.00972.x.

Karatas H, Ozturk C (2011). Relationship between bullying and health problems in primary school children. Asian Nursing Research. 5(2): 81-87. https:-//doi.org/10.1016/S1976-1317(11)60-016-9.

Kemenkes (2016). Peran keluarga dukung kesehatan jiwa masyarakat. Available at: http://www.depkes.go.id/article/-print/16100700005/peran-keluarga-dukungkesehatan-jiwa-masyarakat.html (Accessed July 2019).

Kowalski RM, Limber SP (2013). Psycholo-gical, physical, and academic corre-lates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying. J Adolesc Health. 53(1): S13–S20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.-jadohealth.2012.09.018.

Marcillo C, Ramos-Olazagasti MA, Blanco C, Sala R, Canino G, Bird H, Duarte CS (2015). Socio-cultural context and bulling others in childhood. J Child Fam Stud. 24(8): 2241–2249. https:-//doi:10.1007/s10826-014-0026-1.

Martinez-Monteagudo MC, Delgado B, Ingles CJ, Escortell R (2020). Cyber-bullying and social anxiety: A latent class analysis among Spanish adoles-cents. Int J Environmental Res Public Health. 17: 406. https://doi:10.3390-/ijerph17020406.

Maunder R, Crafter S (2018). School bully-ing from a sociocultural perspective. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 38: 13-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.-2017.10.010.

Notar CE, Padgett S, Roden J (2013). Cyberbullying: A review of the litera-ture. Universal Journal of Educational Research. 1(1): 1-9. DOI: 10.13189/uj-er.2013.010101.

Ortega-Baron J, Buelga S, Cava MJ (2015). The influence of school and family environment on adolescent victims of cyberbullying. Comunicar Media Edu-cation Research Journal. https://www.revistacomunicar.com/index.-php?contenido=detalles&numero=46&articulo=46-2016-06&idioma=en.

Pradas ICL, Romera EM, Casas JA, Ruiz RO (2017). Cybergossip and cyber-bullying during primary school years. Psicología Educativa. 23: 73–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pse.2017.05.007.

Saiz MJS, Chacon RMF, Abejar MG, Parra MDS, Rubio MEL, Jimenez SY (2019). Personal and social factors which protect against bullying victimization. http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/eglobal.18.2.345931.

Wolke D (2017). Prevalence and consequ-ences of bullying: What could health-care services do for intervention. European Psychiatry. 41: S25. https://doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.01.132.

Xantus A, Saltz SB, Shaw JA (2015). The relationship between social media bullying and the adolescent's self report of emotional health: A study of urban youth on an acute inpatient psychiatric unit. J Depress Anxiety. 4(2): 186. https://doi:10.4172/2167-1044.1000186.




How to Cite

Privetera, H. S., Soemanto, R., & Prasetya, H. (2020). Effect of Bullying on the Risk of Anxiety and Social Interaction Disorder among Senior High School in Yogyakarta. Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior, 5(4), 306–316. Retrieved from https://www.thejhpb.com/index.php/thejhpb/article/view/284




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>