Effect of Family Support and Peer Support on The Quality of Life of The Elderly: A Path Analysis Evidence from Jember, East Java
Background: Indonesia is one of the countries with an elderly population by >7%. It may increase every year. The number of elderly people will increase globally and lead to several problems such as health, psychological, social, and economic problems. Other psychological problems experienced by the elderly are loneliness due to loss of spouse, separation from family, and loss of peers. This study aimed to analyze the effect of family support and peer support on the quality of life of the elderly.
Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at of Tresna Werdha social service, in Wuluhan, Jember, East Java, from August to September 2019. A sample of 200 elderly aged >60 years old was selected by fixed exposure sampling. The dependent variable was quality of life. The independent variables were education, healthy behavior, family income, family support, peer support, and residence. The study was collected by questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis.
Results: Good quality of life on the elderly increased with healthy behavior (b= 1.06; 95% CI 0.25 to 1.87; p= 0.010), education ≥Senior high school (b= 1.33; 95% CI 0.37 to 2.29; p= 0.007), family income ≥Rp 2,170,000 (b= 1.59; 95% CI 0.17 to 3.02; p= 0.028), strong family support (b= 1.93; 95%CI 0.47 to 3.39; p= 0.010), strong peer support (b= 1.18; 95%CI= 0.21 to 2.16; p=0.017), and residence at home (b=1.46; 95% CI 0.26 to 2.65; p=0.017).
Conclussion: Good quality of life on the elderly increased with healthy behavior, education ≥Senior high school, high family income, strong family support, strong peer support, and residence at home.
Keywords: quality of life, family support, peer support
Correspondence: Malinda Capri Nurul Satya. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. Email: email@example.com. Mobile: 085236936546
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior (2019), 4(3): 159-169
Andesty D, Syahrul F (2018). Hubungan interaksi sosial dengan kualitas hidup lansia di Unit Pelayanan Terpadu (UPTD) Griya Werdha Kota Surabaya Tahun 2017. The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, 13(2):171-182. doi: 10.204703.
Azwan, Herlina, Karim D (2015). Hubungan dukungan sosial teman sebaya dengan kualitas hidup lansia di panti sosial tresna werdha, Jurnal online Mahasiswa Program Studi Ilmu Keperawatan Universitas Riau (JOM PSIK UNRI), 2(2). Retrieved from: https://jom.unri.ac.id/index.php/JOMPSIK/article/view/8258.
Bahramnezhad F, Chalik R, Bastani F, Navab E (2017) The social network among the elderly and its relationship with quality of life, Electronic Physician, 9(5): 4306–4311. doi: 10.19082/4306.
Bilgili N, Sarpaci F (2014). Quality of life in older adults in Turkey, Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 59(2):415-421. doi:10.1016 j.archger/ 2014.07.005.
Blay SL, Schulz AJ, Mentz G (2015). The relationship of built environment to health related behaviors and health outcomes in elderly community residents in a middle income Country. J Public Health Res. 4(2):548. doi: 10.4081/jphr.2015.548.
BPS (2018). Statistik Penduduk lanjut usia 2018. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik. Retrieved from: https://swebcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:hZ3Q3xqUSqgJ:https://www.bps.go.id/publication/2018/12/21/eadbab6507c06294b74adf71/statistik_penduduk_lanjut_usia_2018.html+cd=1hl=idct=clnkgl=idclient=firefox-b-d.
Bryla M, Burzynska M, Maiecka BIM (2013). Self -rated quality of life of city-dwelling elderly people benefitting from social help: Results of a cross-sectional study. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 11(1): 1-11. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-11-181.
Cahyaningtyas NA, Sudiyanto A, Soemanto RB (2019). Socioeconomic determinants of healthy ageing and the contextual effect of peer group: A multilevel evidence from Blora, Central Java, J Epidemiol Public Healt, 4(1): 30-36. doi: https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2019.04.01.04.
Chakkalackal L (2014). The value of peer support on cognitive improvement amongest older people living with dementia, Social Services Research Group, 31(2): 127–141. Retrieved from http://ssrg.org.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2015/09/Chakkalackal_v2
Ferreira LK, Meireles JFF, Ferreira MEC (2018). Evaluation of lifestyle and quality of life in the elderly: A literature review, Rev Bras Geriatr Gerontol, 21(5):616627. doi:10.1590/1981 22562018021.180028.
Granbom M, Iwarsson S, Kylberg M, Pettersson C, Slaug B (2016). A public health perspective to environmental barriers and accessibility problems for senior citizens living in ordinary housing, BMC Public Health, 16(772):1–11. doi:s10.1186/s12889-016-3369-2.
Hafshjani FC, Abedi HA (2016). A study of families experiences of putting their elders in nursing homes, Int. J. Med. Health Sci Res, 5(11):209–214. Retrieved from https://www.ijmrhs.com/medical_research/study_of_families_experiences_of_putting_their_elders_in_nursing_homes.
Harooni J, Hassanzadeh A, Mostafavi F (2014). Influencing factors on health promoting behavior among the elderly living in the community, Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 3(40):132.doi: 10.4103/22779531.131921
Hudoibro DG, Mendenhall T (2015). Family oriented care. Opportuinities for health promotion and disease prevention, J Fam Med Dis Prev. ISSN: 2469-5793. Retrieved from: https://clinmedjournals.org/articles/jfmdp/journal-of-family-medicine-and-disease-prevention-jfmdp-1-009.
Huidobro DG, Puschel K, Soto G (2012). Family functioning style and health: opportunities for health prevention in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 62 (596): 198–203. doi: 10.3399/bjgp12X630098.
Kemenkes (2014). Infodatin situasi dan analisis lanjut usia (lansia). Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Retrieved from http://www.depkes.go.id/resources/download/pusdatin/infodatin/infodatin-lansia.
Kemenkes (2016). Infodatin Situsi Lanjut Usia (Lansia) di Indonesia. Jakarta: Direktorat Bina Kesehatan Komunitas. Retrieved from: https://pusdatin.kemkes.go.id/article/view/16092300002/infodatin-situasi-lanjut-usia-lansia-di-indonesia.html.
Kosim N, Nanik I, Siti K (2015). Faktor yang mempengaruhi kualitas hidup peduduk di Desa Sentul Kecamatan Sumber Suko Kabupaten Lumajang. Artikel Ilmiah Mahasiswa, Jember: Universitas Jember. Retrieved from: http://repository.unej.ac.id/bitstream/handle/123456789/64385/Nanang%20Kosim.
Kumar BAP, Eshwar SU, Arun D, Shravan S (2016). Quality of life of elderly people in institutional and non-institutional setting: a cross-sectional comparative study, Natl J Community Med, 7(7): 546–550. eISSN 2229 6816. Retriev-ed from:https://www.bibliomed.or/?mno=241172.
Layte R, Sexton E, Savva G (2013). Quality of life in older age: Evidence from an Irisch cohort study, J Am Geriatr Soc, 61(S2):S299-2305.doi:10.1111/jgs.12198.
Panday R, Kiran M, Srivastava P, Kumar S (2015). A study on quality of life between elderly people living in old age home and within family setup, Open J Psychiatry Allied Sci, 6(2):127. doi:10.5958/2394-2061.2015.00010.5
Pernambuco CS, Rodrigues BM, Cleria J, Bezerra P (2012). Quality of life, elderly and physical activity, Health Journal, 4(2):88-93. doi:10.42-36/sshealth. 2012.42014.
Pouladi SH, Anoosheh M, Kazemnejed A, Zareiyan A (2013). Factors limiting families in elderly care: A thematic analysis, Qual Health Res, 2(2):146-57. ISSN: 2645-6109. Retrieved from: http://jqr.kmu.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=175sid=1slc_lang=en.
Prasetyaningsih R, Indarto D, Akhyar M (2016). Association of determinant factors on bio-psychosocial with quality of life in elderly, J Epidemiol Public Healt, 1(2):108-117. doi: 10.26911.
Sheridazeh Y, Sarkhoshi R, Babazadeh T, Moradi F, Shariat F, Mirzaian K (2016). The quality of life and its related factors in the elderly covered by health care centers in Khoy City. Journal Anal Res Clin Med. 4(3):139-145.
Suwarni S, Soemanto RB, Sudiyanto A (2018). Effect of dementia, family support, peer support, type of residence, and marital status on quality of life of the elderly in Surakarta, Central Java, J Epidemiol Public Health, 3(1): 83–94. doi: 10.26911.
The World Bank (2018). Total population ages 65 and above. Retrieved from: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO?end=2018start=2016.
Uddin MA, Bhuiyan AJ (2019). Development of the family support scale (FSS) for elderly people, MOJ Gerontology and Geriatrics, 4(1):17–20. doi: 10.15406/mojgg.2019.04.00170.
Waterworth P, Pescud M, Braham R, Dimmock J, Rosenberg M (2015). Factors influencing the health behaviour of indigenous Australians: Perspectives from support people, PLoS ONE, 10(11):1–17.doi: 10.1371/journal pone 0142323.
Wulandari ASF (2011). Kejadian dan tingkat depresi pada lanjut usia: Studi perbandingan di Panti Wreda dan komunitas. Karya Tulis Ilmiah. Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro Semarang. Retrieved from: http://eprints.undip.ac.id.
Yuliati A, Boroya N, Ririanty M (2014). The different of quality of life among the elderly who living at community and social services, e-Journal: Pustaka Kesehatan, 2(1):87-94. Retrieved from: https://jurnal.unej.ac.id/index.php/JPK/article/view/601.