Case Study on the Biopsychosocial Impacts and Coping Behaviors among Victims of Female Sexual Violence in Sukoharjo, Central Java


  • Isna Rahmawati Retnaningsih Masters Program in Public Health, Sebelas Maret University
  • Argyo Demartoto Department of Political and Social Science, Sebelas Maret University
  • Eti Poncorini Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University


Background: Sexual violence on women is a serious social problem. It may cause various impacts including biological, reproductive, psychological, and social impacts. There is a need for behavioral change to deal with the impact of sexual violence. This study aimed to explore the biopsychosocial impacts and coping behaviors among female sexual violence victims.

Subjects and Method: This was a qualitative descriptive research using case study method. The study was conducted in Sukoharjo from 15 June to 25 July 2017. Key informants were included female sexual violence victims and close persons, Chairman of NGO Alliance of Concern in Women's Welfare (APPM), volunteers of One Heart Disability Society, staff of Office for Women's Empowerment, and Head of  Women and Child Protection Unit, and medical personnel. The data were collected by in-depth interview, observation, and document review. Interactive analysis included data collection, reduction, display, and verification.

Results: The age of female victims of sexual violence ranged between 15 and 21 years. They had no schooling or junior high school education. All of them came from Sukoharjo, Central Java. The forms of sexual violence were sexual harassment and rape. The perpetrators were close persons of the victim. The biological, reproductive, and psychological impacts of the victim included fear, irritation, trauma, worry, self-imprison, self-contain, feelings of revenge, emotion, stress, pain during urination, fever, unwanted pregnancy, and complications of childbirth. The social impacts included isolation, gossiping, and negative stigma of the victim. The victim's behaviors in coping with the biopsychosocial impacts included routine medical check up, attempt to forget, taking for granted, and avoidance of bringing up the incidents of sexual violence, preoccupation with positive activities, seeking support of the close person, being more careful of the opposite sex, and avoidance of mingling with unrecognized people in a strange environment.

Conclusion: Female sexual assault cases suffered undesireable biological, reproductive, psychological, and social impacts. The impacts of biological and reproductive health take the forms of health problems, unwantted pregnancy, and complications of childbirth. There is a need for support to help overcome the biopsychosocial impacts of sexual violence victims.

Keywords: Health Belief Model, biopsychosocial impacts, sexual violence

Correspondence: Isna Rahmawati Retnaningsih. Masters Program in Public Health, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: Mobile: +6285640533107.

Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior (2017), 2(3): 218-231


Bahri S, Fajriani (2015). Suatu Kajian Awal terhadap Tingkat Pelecehan Seksual di Aceh. Jurnal Pencerahan. 9(1): 50-65.

Barth J, Bermetz L, Heim E, Trelle T (2013). The Current Prevalence Of Child Sexual Abuse Worldwide: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Public Health 58, 469-483.

Becker HM, Rosenstock I (1987). The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behaviour. Slack Inc: New Jersey.

BKKBN (2012). Buku Suplemen Bimbingan Teknis Kesehatan Reproduksi Pelecehan Seksual. Jakarta: BKKBN. Jak/2013/PI/H/28.

Devries KM, Kyegombe N, Zuurmond M, Parkes J, Child JC, Walakira ED, Naker D (2014). Violence Against Primary School Children With Disabilities In Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study. BMC Public Health 14:1017.

Finkelhor D, Browne A (1985) The Traumatic Impact of Child Sexual Abuse: A Conceptialization. Durham: University of New Hampshire.

Illenia P, Woelan H (2011). Pemulihan Diri Pada Korban Kekerasan Seksual. Jurnal INSAN Universitas Airlangga. 13(2).

Komnas Perempuan (2016). Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan Meluas: Mendesak Negara Hadir Hentikan Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan Di Ranah Domestik, Komunitas Dan Negara. Lembar Fakta Catatan Tahunan (Catahu) 2016. Diakses pada 10 Januari 2017.

KPAI (2016). Bank Data KPAI Tentang Angka Kekerasan Pada Anak 2012-2014. Komisi Perlindungan Anak Indonesia. Diakses pada 28 Desember 2016.

Leeners B, Gisela G, Emina B, Michael PH (2015). Birth Experience In Adult Women With A History Of Childhood Sexual Abuse. Journal of Psychomatic Research; 83 (2016) 27-32.

Martin, SL, Ray N, Alvarez DS, Kupper LL, Moracco KE, Dickens PA, Scandlin D, Gizlice Z (2006). Physical and Sexual Assault of Women With Disabilities. SAGE Journals Online and High Wire Press platforms. 12 : 823-837.

Maulana H (2009). Promosi Kesehatan. Jakarta: EGC.

McPherson, Scribano P, Steven J (2012). Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 27(1):23-39.

Miles MB, Huberman AM (2007). Analisis Data Kualitatif. Jakarta: UI Press.

Montgomery, E, Chatherine P, Jane R (2015). A Feminist Narrative Study Of Maternity Care Experiences Of Women Who Were Sexually Abused In Childhood. Midwifery International Journal. 31 (2015):54-60.

Murdiyanto (2015). Darurat Kekerasan Sek-sual Anak. Yogyakarta: B2P3KS Press.

PKBI (2016). Nyala Lilin Untuk Para Korban: Selasa, 24 Mei 2016. Per-kumpulan Keluarga Berencana Indonesia. Diakses pada tanggal 7 Februari 2017

Poerwandari EK (2000). Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan: Tinjauan Psikologi Feministik. Jakarta: Kelompok Kerja “Convention Watch” Pusat Kajian Wanita dan gender. Universitas Indonesia. Diakses 29 Desember 2016.

Rawlett K (2011). Analytical Evaluation of the Health Belief Model and the Vulnerable Populations Conceptual Model Applied to a Medically Underserved, Rural Population. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology; 1(2): 15-21.

Taftn AJ, Rhonda L, Lyndsey FW (2015). The Impact Of Violence Against Women On Reproductive Health And Child Mortality In Timor Leste. Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Public Health. 39: 177-181.

Wardhani YF, Weny L (2011). Gangguan Stres Pasca Trauma pada Korban Plecehan Seksual dan Perkosaan. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sistem dan Kebijakan Kesehatan Surabaya.

Wilson KA (2006). Sexual Assault and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of The Biological, Psychological and Sociological Factors and Treatments. Journal of Medicine, 9(2): 11-118.

WHO (2003). Chapter 6: How is sexual violence defined?. World Report on Violence and Health: page 149. Diakses pada 10 Januari 2017

_______ (2013). Global And Regional Estimates Of Violence Against Women: Prevalence And Health Effects Of Intimate Partner Violence And Non Partner Sexual Violence. Italy: WHO Press.




How to Cite

Retnaningsih, I. R., Demartoto, A., & Poncorini, E. (2017). Case Study on the Biopsychosocial Impacts and Coping Behaviors among Victims of Female Sexual Violence in Sukoharjo, Central Java. Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior, 2(3), 218–231. Retrieved from




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>